Don961: Baghdad today details the most important clauses of the 2008 agreement between Iraq and America… a sovereign right and a scheduled withdrawal
422 Policy 2021/07/21 20:53 Baghdad today – a special report
Eighteen years, the age of Iraq’s experience with the United States of America, with all its contradictions, and violations committed by the American forces on human rights and Iraqi sovereignty.
This long experience has caused a great division in the Iraqi street, if it is at the political and popular level. There are those who believe that the presence of US forces in Iraq through an agreement whose terms are respected between two sovereign states is an inevitable matter to prevent the encroachment on Iraq at this critical period that It needs to be reconstructed, while other parties see that the presence of US forces in Iraq is an insult to Iraq, and futile as a result of the violations committed by these forces against the Iraqis and the security forces.
Many political forces and armed factions still consider the US forces to be occupying forces, and from time to time they target them in many areas of Iraq, especially in central and southern Iraq.
It seems that these repercussions have put Al-Kazemi’s government under pressure and the need to negotiate with the US forces to schedule their withdrawal, especially after the Iraqi parliament voted to completely evacuate foreign forces from Iraq on January 5, 2020.
The last talks between the two countries took place on April 7 of this year, during which both Iraq and the United States agreed to withdraw the last soldier from the American combat forces present in Iraq.
The United States and the coalition forces have turned into a training and advisory mission, which will subsequently allow the redeployment of any combat force still in Iraq, provided that the timetable for this will be determined during future talks.
At a time when Iraqi Foreign Minister Fouad Hussein is in Washington to prepare for the meeting of Iraqi Prime Minister Mustafa Al-Kazemi, with US President Joe Biden, he is the last between the two presidents regarding discussing the strategic framework agreement between the two countries.
The White House announced that US President Joe Biden will meet with Iraqi Prime Minister Mustafa Al-Kadhimi later this month in Washington.
The White House statement confirmed that the meeting will be held on July 26, to highlight the strategic partnership between the United States and Iraq and to enhance bilateral cooperation between the two countries.
The visit will also focus on key areas of mutual interest through education, health, culture, energy and climate initiatives.
According to the statement, the administration looks forward to strengthening bilateral cooperation with Iraq on political, economic and security issues to include joint efforts to ensure the lasting defeat of the “Islamic State.”
The American presence has been targeted since Biden came to power, with at least eight drone attacks last January, in addition to 17 missile attacks.
White House press secretary Jen Psaki said Biden “also looks forward to strengthening bilateral cooperation with Iraq on political, economic and security issues to include joint efforts to ensure the enduring defeat” of the “Islamic State” organization, according to the Associated Press.
In addition, the Iraqi Minister of Foreign Affairs, Fouad Hussein, confirmed that Iraq and America may return to the 2008 agreement after the end of the rounds of dialogue.
And he said in a statement to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, “The meeting of Al-Kazemi and Biden will discuss the overall Iraqi-American relations, noting that Iraq is free of American bases.”
He stressed that “the dialogue round will witness agreement on scheduling the US withdrawal, as the Americans are in Iraqi and not American camps.”
The agreement concluded between Iraq and America in 2008, during the government of former Prime Minister Nuri al-Maliki, defines “the main provisions and requirements that regulate the temporary presence and activities of the US military forces in Iraq and their withdrawal from Iraq.”
It also includes that all United States forces withdraw from all Iraqi territory no later than December 31, 2011 AD, and all United States combat forces withdraw from Iraqi cities and villages no later than the date on which the Iraqi security forces assume full responsibility for security in any An Iraqi governorate, provided that the withdrawal of the United States forces from the above-mentioned places should be completed no later than June 30, 2009 AD.
It affirms that the United States recognizes the sovereign right of the Government of Iraq to request the withdrawal of US forces from Iraq at any time. The Government of Iraq recognizes the sovereign right of the United States to withdraw its forces from Iraq at any time.
It stipulated that the two parties agree to put in place mechanisms and arrangements to reduce the number of US forces during the specified time periods, and they must agree on the locations in which these forces will settle, including when any external or internal danger arises against Iraq or an aggression against it that would violate its sovereignty its political independence, or the unity of its territory, waters, or airspace, or a threat to its democratic system or its elected institutions. The two parties, at the request of the Government of Iraq, shall immediately begin strategic deliberations, as they may agree between them, and the United States shall take appropriate measures, which It includes diplomatic, economic, military, or other measures, to deal with such a threat.
It also stipulates that the two parties agree to continue their close cooperation in strengthening and sustaining the military, security, political and democratic institutions in Iraq, including, as they may agree, cooperation in training, equipping and arming the Iraqi security forces, in order to combat domestic and international terrorism and outside groups. According to the law, at the request of the Iraqi government, it is not permissible to use the lands, waters and airspace of Iraq as a corridor or a launching point for attacks against other countries.
The agreement gave Iraq the right to exercise jurisdiction over members of the United States forces and members of the civilian component of serious and willful felonies, in accordance with the eighth paragraph when such felonies are committed outside agreed facilities and areas and outside the state of duty, as well as the right to exercise jurisdiction over contractors with the United States and their employees.
The agreement also granted the right for the United States to exercise jurisdiction over members of the United States forces and members of the civilian component over matters occurring within agreed facilities and areas and during the performance of duty outside agreed facilities and areas.
The agreement prohibited US forces from searching homes or other real estate except by virtue of an Iraqi judicial order issued in this regard and in full coordination with the competent Iraqi authorities, except in cases where actual combat operations are taking place.
It stipulated, “Enabling Iraq to continue developing its national economic system by rehabilitating the Iraqi economic infrastructure, as well as providing basic vital services to the Iraqi people, and to continue to preserve Iraq’s oil and gas resources and also preserve its financial and economic assets abroad, including the Fund development for Iraq.
And it gave the United States forces the right to use any amount of cash in American currency or financial documents whose value is specified in American currency exclusively for the purposes of this agreement. Take measures to ensure that members of the United States forces, members of the civilian component, contractors with the United States, and employees of contractors with the United States do not export Iraqi currency from Iraq. LINK